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List of stock exchanges: Major stock exchanges by continent          

List of stock exchanges: Major stock exchanges and stock exchanges by continent

List of stock exchanges: Major stock exchanges and stock exchanges by continent

A stock exchange is a regulated marketplace where buyers and sellers come together to trade financial instruments, primarily stocks or shares of publicly traded companies. A stock exchange acts as an intermediary, facilitating the exchange of ownership and providing liquidity to investors who want to buy or sell shares.

A stock exchange serves as a central platform to facilitate the buying and selling of securities through a network of brokers. A stock can only be exchanged, sold, or bought if it is listed in the stock market. Each country has their own stock exchanges where they can sell and buy stocks. Market identifier code also known as MIC is the unique short form given to each stock exchange. 

The New York stock exchange is the largest in the world. The MIC of the New York stock exchange is XYNS. The New York stock exchange is situated in North America. The NASDAQ is another stock exchange situated in North America. The MIC is XNAS. The NASDAQ is the world’s second-biggest stock exchange in terms of market capitalization. The Shanghai stock exchange is situated in the mainland of China. The MIC is XSHG. 

The stock market or the share market is the cluster of buyers and sellers of stock which represent ownership claims on businesses that include securities listed on a public stock exchange.

What is the stock exchange?

A stock exchange is a digital or physical place where we can sell or buy stock or shares. The term stock represents the share in the company’s ownership and its earnings and assets. Stockholders are partial owners of the company.

The price of each stock is determined by the supply and demand and investors’ sentiment and both domestic and international economies. The stock market is now available in every part of the world but the first exchange was established in Amsterdam in the 17th century. 

Market capitalization is the total value of a company that is traded. It is obtained by multiplying the total number of stocks and the present price of the stock. 19 stock exchanges in the world have over 1 trillion market capitalization. They are commonly referred to as “the one trillion clubs”. They added up to 87% of the global market capitalization.

The stock exchange has mainly two important purposes. Firstly it helps major companies who are enlisted in the stock market to raise capital from the public or traders by offering shares of the company for sale and this capital can be used for expanding their business and also fund themselves. Secondly, it helps the local investors to buy stocks of these companies and an opportunity to have a share in this company’s profit. 

Companies that are enlisted in the stock market must give a lot of information to their investors about their business. The companies should also provide quarterly and annual financial reports. This information along with other important news items disclosed as they occur helps investors to know more about the company they want to invest in. The working of the stock market is closely associated with the action of the bear and bull markets. The market is highly fluctuating. Sometimes the market value is rising and sometimes it’s falling. The bear market represents the falling market and the bull represents the rising market.

The stock exchange acts as an economic barometer as it helps to indicate the state of the economy. It observes all the major and minor changes in the economy. The stock exchange also helps in the valuation of securities based on the factors of supply and demand.

The valuation helps the investors to work accordingly because high-profiting and growing companies or stocks are highly valued. Transactions are strictly regulated in the stock exchange. All the listed companies should follow the rules and regulations as laid out by the Securities and Exchange Board of India.

Stock exchange helps in the process of growth of the economy because the process of stock exchange involves disinvesting and reinvesting which offers an opportunity for capital formation. The stock market allows better capital allocation of the investors so that they can maximize their profit. The stock market also encourages investment and savings.

A portfolio is a collection of financial assets and investment tools that are held by an individual, a financial institution, or an investment firm. It is always ideal to diversify your portfolio for increasing your profit and investment security. 

What are the major stock exchanges? 

There are about 60 major global stock exchanges in the world that range from the New York Stock Exchange to the private sector Stock Exchange. They differ in size and trading volume. 

The New York stock exchange is the biggest and largest stock exchange which has a market capitalization of 22.7 trillion USD. The New York Stock Exchange is also known as THE BIG BOARD. The next top 3 stock exchanges are the NASDAQ( National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations ), The Shanghai Stock Exchange, and Euronext.

Nasdaq is also situated in New York. It has a market cap of 18.0 trillion USD. The Shanghai stock exchange is situated in China and has a market cap of 7.26 trillion us dollars. Euronext is situated in Europe ( Amsterdam, Brussels, Dublin, Lisbon, Milan, Oslo, and Paris ). The market cap of Euronext is 6.62 trillion USD.

The Bombay stock exchange (BSE) is the biggest in India with a market cap of 3.5 trillion USD. The stocks that are exchanged in the stock market are of different types. The major 19 types are listed below. Common Stock, Preferred stocks, Large cap stocks, Mid-cap stocks, Small cap stocks, Domestic stocks, International stocks, Growth stocks, Value stocks, IPO stocks, Dividend stocks, Non Dividend stocks, Income stocks, Cyclical stocks, Noncyclic stocks, Safe stocks, ESG stocks, Blue chip stocks, Penny stocks.

There are 7 major stock exchanges in India. NSE and BSE are the two leading stock exchanges in India. There are 23 working stock exchanges in India Stock exchanges ensure the liquidity of financial securities and widespread investor participation in the stock market. The following is a list of top stock exchanges which are found across the globe. 

1. NASDAQ

The full form of Nasdaq is the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations. It is the 2nd largest stock exchange in the world with a market capitalization of 18 trillion US Dollars. It is situated in  New York in the United States of America. It is the most active stock trading venue in the US by volume. It was founded on February 8th, 1971. There are 3,554 listings on NASDAQ. The Market Identifier Code for NASDAQ is XNAS. 

Nasdaq is one of the most popular and successful online global platforms for buying and trading securities. It operates 29 markets and five central securities depositories both in the USA and Europe. Most of the world’s technology giants like Microsoft, Amazon, Tesla, Apple, Google, and Meta Platform are listed on NASDAQ. NASDAQ officially separated from the NASD (National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc) and began to operate as a national securities exchange in 2006.

NASDAQ is formed by the merger with the Scandinavian exchanges group OMX. The NASDAQ Stock Market has three different market tiers. The capital market, the global market, and the global select market. The monthly trade volume of Nasdaq is 1,262 Billion USD.

2. New york stock exchange 

The NYSE started in 1792 with 24 stockbrokers signing the Buttonwood Agreement. The New York Stock Exchange started with five securities, which included three government bonds and two bank stocks on May 17th, 1792. It is the largest in the world by market capitalization with a market cap of 22.7 trillion US dollars. NYSE is also known as THE BIG BOARD.

It is located in the financial district of Lower Manhattan in New York City. The market identifier code of The New York Stock Exchange is NYSE. International Exchange is the owner of NYSE and its president is Lynn Martin. There are 2400 listings on NYSE. The New York Stock Exchange is the first formalized stock exchange established in the United States.

Five of the major companies listed on the NYSE are Bank of America Cooperation, Big Lotus co, Bird Global Inc, Carnival Corp, and C3 AL Inc. Five of the major companies from India listed on the New York stock exchanges are HDFC Bank, ICICI Bank, Axis Bank, Infosys, and Yatra Online. You can invest in US stocks in two ways from India – indirect and direct. The direct investment options are opening a Global trading account with a domestic agent or an Overseas trading account with a foreign broker. Indirect methods involve Mutual funds, Exchange-traded funds, and Investment apps. A corporation must meet defined rules and requirements to be listed on the NYSE and it must continue to meet the listing rules and regulations to maintain its place. The monthly trade volume of the New York Stock Exchange is 1,452 Billion USD.

3. London stock exchange 

London stock exchange is the biggest stock exchange in the United Kingdom which was founded on 30th December 1801. London stock exchange is owned by the London stock exchange group. Don Robert is the chairman of the London stock exchange and David Schwimmer is the CEO of the London stock exchange. The currency used in the London stock exchange is the Sterling (stock prices are quoted in pence rather than pounds).

There are 2483 listings on the London stock exchange. The MIC of the London stock exchange is LSE. The LSE has a market cap of USD$3.57 trillion (As of March 2022). The regional exchanges were merged to form the Stock Exchange of Great Britain and Ireland, later renamed the London Stock Exchange (LSE). This merger took place in the year 1973. The monthly trade volume of LSE is 219 Billion USD.

London stock exchange is home to 2000 companies from around 100 countries all around the world. Shell Astra, Zeneca, HSBC, Diageo, and Unilever are the 5 biggest companies listed on the London stock exchange.

4. Shanghai stock exchange

The MIC of the Shanghai stock exchange is SSE. The Shanghai stock exchange is the largest in the mainland of china. It is a nonprofit organization run by the China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC). The Shanghai stock exchange is situated in the city of Shanghai in China. It is one of the three stock exchanges operating independently in mainland China, the others being the Beijing Stock Exchange and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange.

It is the world’s 3rd largest stock exchange in terms of market capitalization. The SSE is also the largest stock exchange in the continent of Asia. The Shanghai stock exchange was founded on 26th November 1990. Geng Liang is the chairman of the Shanghai stock exchange and Zhang Yujun is the president of the Shanghai Stock Exchange. The total number of listings as of July 2021 is 2005. The market capitalization of the Shanghai Stock Exchange is US$7.26 trillion (as of Jan 2023). 

There are two types of stocks being issued on the Shanghai Stock Exchange: “A” shares and “B” shares. Shares are restricted to domestic investors and it is priced in Renminbi but B shares are traded by both domestic and foreign investors and are traded in US dollars. Kweichow Moutai, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, Agricultural Bank of China, China Life, and Ping An Insurance are the top 5 listed companies on the Shanghai stock exchange.

Foreign investors cannot freely invest on The Shanghai stock exchange This is because the Chinese government holds tight control over the country’s capital but still it is the biggest exchange in Asia. The monthly trade volume is 536 billion USD

5. Hong Kong Stock Exchange

The MIC of the Hong Kong stock exchange is HKEX. The total number of listings is 2538( as of 2022). The Hong Kong stock exchange was founded on 21st February 1914. Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing owns the Hong Kong stock exchange. Nicolas Aguzin is the CEO of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and Laura Cha is the chairman.

The market capitalization of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange is 47 trillion Hong Kong Dollars as of 2020. AIA, Tencent Holdings, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, China Construction Bank, and Bank of China are the top 5 stocks of the Hong Kong stock exchange. The computer-assisted trading system was introduced on 2nd April 1986. 

The Hong Kong stock exchange has a ground-breaking cross-border trading scheme. The average daily volume of Stock Options for the first three months of 2023 was 665,210 contracts. The monthly trade volume is 182 billion USD

6. Toronto Stock Exchange

The Toronto stock exchange is an exchange located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Toronto Stock Exchange is in the top 10 largest exchanges in the world and it is the third largest stock exchange in North America based on market capitalization. The market identifier code of the Toronto stock exchange is TSX. The Toronto stock exchange was founded on 25th October 1861. The Toronto stock exchange is owned by TMX Group.

John McKenzie is the CEO of the TMX Group and Loui Anastasopoulos is the CEO of the Toronto stock exchange. Total number of listings is 3451. The Toronto stock exchange has a market capitalization of $4.3 trillion( as of December 2021). The monthly trade volume is 97 billion USD

The Toronto stock exchange is Canada’s oldest and largest public equity market. Royal Bank of Canada, Canadian National Railway Company, Canadian Pacific Kansas City Limited, Canadian Natural Resources Limited, Shopify Inc. and Class A Subordinate Voting Shares are 5 main investors in the Toronto stock exchange.

7. Bombay Stock Exchange

Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), is an Indian stock exchange which is located on Dalal Street in Mumbai. The market identifier code of the Bombay Stock Exchange is BSE. BSE’s market cap is ₹280 trillion (US$3.5 trillion) as of Feb 2023.

The Bombay Stock Exchange was founded on 9th July 1875 by Premchand Roychand. The chairperson of the Bombay Stock Exchange is SS Mundra and Sundararaman Ramamurthy is the managing director and CEO. The Bombay Stock Exchange has 5,307 total listings.

Reliance Industries Ltd, TATA Consultancy Services Ltd, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries  Ltd, Adani Enterprises Ltd, and Bajaj Finserv  Ltd are 5 examples of the top companies listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange. The Bombay Stock Exchange is Asia’s first and India’s largest security market. The BSE is known for its electronic trading system that provides fast and efficient trading. 

8. Euronext

Euronext is a pan-American stock exchange platform where stock including equities, exchange-traded funds (ETF), warrants and certificates, bonds, derivatives, commodities, foreign exchange as well as indices are traded. Euronext has nearly 2,000 listed issuers worth €6.9 trillion in market capitalisation. It was founded in the year 1724 as the Paris stock exchange.

The headquarters is situated in Paris and the registered office is in the Netherlands. Stéphane Boujnah is both the CEO and chairman of the managing board. Euronext operates in 7 different countries namely Amsterdam, Lisbon, Dublin, Milan, Oslo, Paris, and Brussels. 

The average daily turnover is 8.88 billion euros. The markets in Amsterdam and Paris are the 2 largest markets in Euronext. Euronext was originally created via the mergers of the Amsterdam, Paris, and Brussels stock exchanges in 2000. The company was once owned by Intercontinental Exchange but now has returned to operating independently. AEX, BEL 20, CAC 40, and PSI 20 are indexes created by Euronext. 

The Procter & Gamble Company, Coca-Cola Europacific Partners, Heineken N.V, Just Eat Takeaway.com, Unibail-Rodamco-Westfield, Universal Music Group, Française des Jeux (lottery) are 7 top companies listed on Euronext. The monthly trade volume is 174 billion USD.

9. Shenzhen Stock Exchange

The Shenzhen Stock Exchange is a stock exchange located in the city of Shenzhen, in the People’s Republic of China. The Shenzhen stock exchange was founded on 1st December 1990. Wu Lijun is the Chairman of the Shenzhen stock exchange and Wang Jianjun is the president and CEO of the Shenzhen stock exchange.

Total number of listings is 2375. The market capitalization of the Shenzhen Stock Exchange is US$5.24 trillion. SZSE 100 (blue chip), SZSE 200, SZSE 300, and SZSE Components are 4 of the major indices of the Shenzhen stock exchange. The market identifier code of the Shenzhen stock exchange is SZSE. 

It is the 8th largest stock exchange in the world and the 4th largest stock exchange in Asia. The Shenzhen stock exchange is a non-profit organization. It is one of the 3 stock exchanges of China alongside the Shanghai Stock Exchange and Hong Kong Stock Exchange.

Contemporary Amperex Technology Co Ltd, Wuliangye Yibin Co Ltd, Shenzhen Mindray Bio-Medical Electronics, Hangzhou Hik-Vision Digital Technology Co Ltd, and Luzhou Laojiao Co Ltd are the top 5 companies listed on the Shenzhen stock exchange.

10. Taiwan Stock Exchange

Taiwan stock exchange is the stock exchange of Taiwan located in Taipei, a city in Taiwan. The market identifier code is TWSE. The Taiwan stock exchange was established in 1961 and began operating on 9th February 1962. The Taiwan stock exchange is controlled by the Financial Supervisory Commission.

Hsu Jan-yau is the chairman of the Taiwan stock exchange and Lee Chi-hsien is the president of the Taiwan stock exchange. There are 898 listings on the Taiwan stock exchange. The Market capitalization of the Taiwan stock exchange is NT$ 24,519,622 million. 

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing, Hon Hai Precision Industry, Formosa Petrochemical, Chunghwa Telecom, Cathay Financial Holding, Formosa Chemicals & Fibre, and Advanced Semiconductor Engineering are the top 7 companies listed on the Taiwan stock exchange. The monthly trade volume is 75 billion USD

11. National Stock Exchange

National Stock Exchange (NSE) is one of the leading stock exchanges in India, located in Mumbai. NSE is the 10th largest stock exchange in the world by market capitalization.

The market capitalization of the national stock exchange is US$3.27 trillion as of January 2023. The market identifier code is NSE. The national stock exchange was founded in 1992. There are 2002 numbers of listings. Popular Indices are NIFTY 50, NIFTY Next 50, NIFTY 500 etc.

Girish Chandr Chaturvedi is the chairperson of national stock exchange and Ashishkumar Chauhan is the managing director and CEO of national stock exchange. The Major stakeholders of the National Stock Exchange include Life Insurance Corporation, State Bank of India, India Infoline Limited and Stock Holding Corporation of India Limited.

Reliance Industries Ltd, Tata Consultancy Services Ltd, HDFC Bank Ltd, ICICI Bank Ltd, and Hindustan Unilever Ltd are the top 5 companies in the national stock exchange by market capitalization. The monthly trade volume is 481 billion USD.

12. SIX Swiss Exchange

Six Swiss Exchange is situated in Zurich (the largest city in Switzerland). The Six Swiss Exchange is owned by the Six Group and it was founded in 1993. The market capitalization of The Six Swiss Exchange is CHF 1.6 trillion. Thomas Zeeb is the head of Swiss Exchange and Jos Dijsselhof is the CEO of Six Group. The top 5 notable indices are SMI, SPI, SLI, SBI, and SARON.

The Six Swiss Exchange was formed by the merging of the Geneva Stock Exchange, the Basel Stock Exchange and the Zürich stock exchange into the Verein Schweizerische Effektenbörse (German for “Swiss Securities Exchanges Association”), publicly known in English as Swiss Exchange. The monthly trade volume is 77 billion USD.

The market identifier code is XSWX. Trading turnover is  CHF 1,208.1 billion. Nestle, The Adecco Group, Adval Tech Holding, Basellandschaftliche Kantonalbank, Banque cantonale de Genève, National Bank of Liechtenstein, and Zurich Insurance Group are the top 6 listed companies in six Swiss exchanges.

13. Johannesburg Stock Exchange

Johannesburg Stock Exchange is the principal stock exchange of Africa. It is situated in Sandton, Johannesburg, South Africa. Johannesburg Stock Exchange is the largest stock market in Africa. The market identifier code is JSE.

The JSE had an estimated 442  listed companies and a market capitalization of US$1.36 trillion. The Exchange was founded on 8th November, 1887. Phuthuma Nhleko is the non-executive chairman of Johannesburg Stock Exchange and Leila Fourie is the CEO of Johannesburg Stock Exchange.

The discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand in 1886 led to the formation of many mining and financial companies and a need soon arose for a stock exchange. The JSE provides a market where securities is traded freely under a regulated procedure.

14. Korea Exchange

Korea Exchange is the principal stock exchange in South Korea and was founded in 1956. It is headquartered in Busan and has an office in Seoul. Sohn Byung-doo is the CEO and chairman of Korea Exchange. Total number of listings in The Korea Exchange is 2,445 listings.

The market capitalization of the Korea exchange is ₩2,604 trillion KRW ($2.3 trillion USD). Three notable Indices are KOSPI, KOSDAQ, and KRX 100. The Korea Exchange was created through the combination of the Korea Stock Exchange (KSE), the Korea Futures Exchange, and the KOSDAQ Stock Market under the Korea Stock & Futures Exchange Act. The market identifier code is KRX.

Samsung Electronics, Hyundai Motor Company, LG Chem, LG Household and Healthcare, and Shinhan Financial  Group are the top 5 listed companies in Korea Exchange. The monthly trade volume is 277 Billion USD.

15. Japan Exchange Group

Japan exchange group is an exchange holding company located in Kabutocho, Japan and which was founded on 1st April 1949. The market identifier code of the Japan Exchange Group is JPX. Akira Kiyota is the president and CEO of the Japan Exchange Group. 

There are 3874 listings in the Japan Exchange Group. Nippon Paper Industries, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, Phillip Securities Japan Ltd, and Current Motors Corporation are examples of 5 major companies listed on the Japan Exchange Group.

The market capitalization of The Japan Stock Exchange is $5.65 trillion. JPX is formed by the merger of 3 stock exchanges, a corporation namely the Tokyo Stock Exchange, Inc. (TSE), Osaka Exchange, Inc. (OSE)  and Tokyo Commodity Exchange, Inc. (TOCOM).

16. Australian Securities Exchange

Australian Securities Exchange is the stock exchange that controls the security exchange in Australia. The market identifier code of the Australian Securities Exchange is ASX. The Australian Securities Exchange is also known as the Sydney Stock Exchange and was formed on 1st April 1987. Helen Lofthouse is the CEO of the Australian Securities Exchange.

The total number of listings is 2301(as of August 2022) and the market capitalization is 1.5 trillion USD. It is the world’s 15th biggest stock exchange. It was created by the merger between the Australian Stock Exchange and the Sydney Futures Exchange in July 2006. 

17. Tehran Stock Exchange

Tehran stock exchange is the stock exchange of Iran. It is Iran’s largest stock exchange which first opened in 1967 in Tehran, the largest city in Iran. The market identifier code is TSE. Mahmoud Goudarzi is the CEO of the Tehran stock exchange. Total number of listings of Tehran stock exchange is 666. The market capitalization of the Tehran stock exchange is US$145 billion.

TEPIX and TEDPIX are the 2 main indices of TSE. Tehran stock exchange has companies from a wide range of industries including automotive, telecommunications, agriculture, petrochemical, mining, steel, iron, copper, banking and insurance, banking. 

The Wall Street Journal said that Iran is “full of well-run companies”. The Government of Iran directly holds 35 percent of the TSE. 

18. Deutsche Börse AG

Deutsche Börse AG is a German international organization for trading. It is a joint stock company and was founded in 1992. The market identifier code for Deutsche Börse AG is XFRA. Theodor Weimer is the CEO and chairman of the executive board of Deutsche Börse AG. The Deutsche Börse has a total assets of  €222.9 billion. Deutsche Börse has locations in Germany, Luxembourg, Switzerland, the Czech Republic, and Spain.

Deutsche Börse AG offers indices such as DAX, MDAX, SDAX, and XTF. Deutsche Börse has a market capitalization of 1.7 trillion US dollars. Deutsche Telekom, Porsche, Mercedes Benz, BMW, and Volkswagen are the top 5 companies listed on Deutsche Börse. The monthly trade volume is 140 billion USD. 

19. Saudi Stock Exchange (Tadawul) 

Saudi Stock Exchange or Tadāwul is the stock exchange in Saudi Arabia. It is located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It was found on March 19th, 2007. Khalid Abdullah Al-Hussan is the chairman of Saudi Stock Exchange and Mohammed Sulaiman Al-Rumaih is the CEO of the Saudi Stock Exchange.

The total number of listings is 203. The market capitalization of the Saudi Stock Exchange is US$ 2.22 trillion. The volume of the Saudi Stock Exchange is US$ 102.84 billion. Tadawul All Share (TASI) is the major index which reached its highest point at 20,634.86 on 2006

Saudi Arabia Oil Company (Saudi Aramco), Al Rajhi Banking and Investment Corporation, Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), National Commercial Bank, Saudi Telecoms Company (STC) are the top 5 listed companies in Saudi Stock Exchange. The MIC code for the Saudi Stock Exchange is XSAU.

20. Brasil Bolsa Balcão

B3 Brasil Bolsa Balcão is the second oldest stock exchange located in São Paulo, Brazil. It was founded on August 23rd,1890. Gilson Finkelsztain is the CEO of B3 Brasil Bolsa Balcão and Antonio Carlos Quintella is the chairman. Total number of listings is 475.

The market capitalization of B3 Brasil Bolsa Balcão is  R$5.2 trillion. B3 also has offices in Rio de Janeiro, Shanghai, and London. The market identifier code is BVMF. The B3 Brasil Bolsa Balcão plays a crucial role in the economy of Brazil.

IBOVESPA, IBRX 50, IBRX, IBRA are the four major indices of B3 Brasil Bolsa Balcão. The average volume of trade for 3 months is 50,073,073. 

21. Nasdaq Nordic and Baltic Exchanges

Nasdaq Nordic and Baltic Exchange provide financial services and operate marketplaces for securities in the Nordic and Baltic regions of Europe. Nasdaq Nordic and Baltic exchanges were founded in 2003 and whose headquarters is situated in Stockholm, Sweden. Hans-Ole Jochumsen is the chairman of the board of Nasdaq Nordic and Baltic Exchange.

The Nasdaq Nordic and Baltic exchange have a revenue of SEK 4.305 billion. The Nasdaq Nordic and Baltic exchange consists of 7 other stock exchanges. Copenhagen Stock Exchange( XCSE ), Stockholm Stock Exchange (XSTO), Helsinki Stock Exchange (XHEL), Tallinn Stock Exchange (XTAL), Riga Stock Exchange(XRIS), Vilnius Stock Exchange (XLIT), and Iceland Stock Exchange(XICE). More than 650 companies are currently traded across Main Markets in Stockholm, Copenhagen, Helsinki, and Iceland.

22. Calcutta Stock Exchange

Calcutta Stock Exchange (CSE) is a historically significant financial institution, overseen by India’s Ministry of Finance. Established in 1863 by a group of 16 pioneering stockbrokers, it initially operated from rented quarters at 11 Strand Road. The exchange took on its modern form in 1908 and is distinguished as Asia’s second-oldest and India’s second-largest stock exchange. However, its operational status has been uncertain; the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has recommended its closure. This recommendation is currently under judicial review in the Calcutta High Court. Over the past three years, SEBI’s exit policy has led to the dissolution of 13 other regional exchanges, including notable ones like the Bangalore, Hyderabad, and Madras Stock Exchanges. It’s worth noting that trading activity on the CSE has been at a standstill since 2013.

The Calcutta Stock Exchange (CSE), one of South Asia’s oldest stock exchanges, underwent a pivotal transformation in 1997. On February 26th of that year, the CSE replaced its old manual trading system with a computerized, online trading and reporting platform known as C-STAR. Inaugurated by Shri Jyoti Basu, the then Hon’ble Chief Minister of West Bengal, the modernized system began with 101 “B” Group scrips. By March 7, the system expanded to include all “Permitted Group” scrips, totaling approximately 3,500. Finally, on April 4, 1997, all “A” Group scrips were incorporated into the computerized system. This transition marked a significant milestone, propelling the CSE into a new era of efficiency and accessibility.

What are the Stock Exchanges by Continent?

The stock exchanges can be categorized into 5 by the continent in which they are situated. The Johannesburg stock exchange is a primary example. The market identifier code is XJSE. It is located in South Africa. The New York stock exchange is situated in North America and its MIC is NYSE. NASDAQ is also another stock exchange situated in the continent of North America and its MIC is XNAS. The Shanghai Stock Exchange is one of the most successfully running stock exchanges in Asia.

We can also see the Hong Kong stock exchange, the Bombay stock exchange, and the National Stock Exchange from India. We can see Euronext and London Stock Exchange Group, Deutsche Börse, SIX Swiss Exchange, and Nasdaq Nordic from Europe. In the continent of Oceania, we find the Australian Securities Exchange, South Pacific Stock Exchange, New Zealand Exchange, National Stock Exchange of Australia, and Sydney Stock Exchange (formerly Asia Pacific Stock Exchange).

These are ten examples of countries without stock markets: Afghanistan, North Korea, Cuba, Yemen, Federated States of Micronesia, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Ethiopia 

  1. Europe Stock Exchanges

There are five most important stock exchanges in Europe. These 5 stock exchanges have a market capitalisation over 1 trillion. Euronext is the biggest stock exchange in Europe. The market identifier code is XMAS. Paris, France is where the operational headquarters is situated and at Amsterdam.

Euronext has a Market capitalization of €6.9 trillion. The accepted currency is the euro. London Stock Exchange is the biggest stock exchange found in the United Kingdom. It is situated in the city of London in England. The market identifier code is LSE. The LSE has a market cap of USD$3.57 trillion (As of March 2022).

Deutsche Börse AG  is a German international organization for trading. The Deutsche Borse has a market capitalization of 1.7 trillion us dollars. The market identifier code is XFRA. Frankfurt am Main, Germany is where the headquarters is located at. Six Swiss exchanges are situated in Zurich (largest city in Switzerland). The accepted currency is the Swiss franc. The Nasdaq Nordic and Baltic exchange consists of 7 other stock exchanges. The European continent also has got many more big and small stock exchanges. 

  1. Africa Stock Exchange

There are 29 exchanges in Africa, representing 38 nations in Africa. Algiers Stock Exchange is situated in Algeria in the city of Algiers. Market identifier code is XALG. Number of listings is 5. Total market capitalization is US$499,354,576. The accepted currency is Algerian Dinar. Angola Debt and Stock Exchange is another stock exchange located in Angola in the city of Luanda. Owned by the Government of Angola Public.

The accepted currency is Kwanzaa. Botswana Stock Exchange is a stock exchange whose market identifier code is BSE. It Is located at Gaborone, Botswana. The accepted currency is Botswana pula. The total number of listings is 36. The total market capitalization is 412.30 billion. Douala Stock Exchange whose market identifier code is DSX is situated in Douala. It is the largest city in Cameroon.

The market capitalization of the Douala stock exchange is 1.8 billion francs. Bolsa de Valores de Cabo Verde is a famous stock exchange. It is the stock exchange of Cape Verde. It is located in the Achada Santo António district of Praia. The market capitalization of Achada Santo Antonio is 68.4 billion escudos which is the same as 621 million euro. The market identifier code is BVC.

  1. Asia Stock Exchanges

In the continent of Asia, there are 35 stock exchanges. The MIC of the Shanghai stock exchange is SSE. The Shanghai stock exchange is the largest stock exchange in the mainland of china. The market capitalization of the Shanghai stock exchange is US$7.26 trillion. The Shanghai stock exchange is situated in the city of Shanghai in China. The Tokyo stock exchange is situated in Tokyo Japan.

Japan stock exchange is owned by Japan Exchange Group, Inc and its total number of listings is  2,292. The market identifier code is TSE. As of Jan 2023, the total market capitalization is US$5.65 trillion. The Hong Kong stock exchange is based in the Central District in Hong Kong. It has 2,538 listed companies with a combined market capitalization of HK$47 trillion.  

The Shenzhen Stock Exchange is located in China in the city of Shenzhen. As of Jan 2021 the Market capitalization is US$5.24 trillion and the total no. of listings is 2,375. The market identifier code is SZSE. Bombay Stock Exchange is an Indian-based stock exchange. The market capitalization of BSE is ₹280 trillion (US$3.5 trillion).

  1. Oceania Stock Exchange 

There are 8 active stock exchanges in the region of Oceania. APTEX is one of the stock exchanges. It was founded in 2008. It is located in Sydney, Australia. Sydney Stock Exchange was formerly known as Asia Pacific Stock Exchange and was situated in Melbourne, Australia. It was established in 1997. The market identifier code of the Sydney Stock Exchange is SSX.

The Australian Securities Exchange is situated in Sydney, Australia and it was built in 1987. The market identifier code is ASX. Another stock exchange situated in Australia is Chi-X Australia. It is located in the city of Melbourne. It was built in 2008. The market identifier code of Chi-X Australia is CHIA.

National Stock Exchange of Australia situated in Sydney, Australia was built in 1937. The market identifier code is XNEC. The market capitalization of the national stock exchange of Australia is 1.7 billion US Dollars. In Fiji, The South Pacific Stock Exchange is located. It is situated in Suva which is the capital and largest city of Fiji. It was built in 1971.

The market identifier code of The South Pacific Stock Exchange is XSPS. New Zealand Exchange is situated at Wellington, New Zealand. The market identifier code is XNZE. It was built in 2002. The market capitalisation of The South Pacific Stock Exchange is NZ$161.4 billion. As of 2022 there are 184 listings in the South Pacific Stock Exchange.

  1. Americas Stock Exchanges

The New York Stock Exchange is the largest in the world by market capitalization with a market cap of 22.649 trillion US dollars. It is located in the financial district of lower Manhattan in New York City. The market identifier code of the New York Stock Exchange is NYSE. The full form of NASDAQ is National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations. It is the 2nd largest stock exchange in the world with a market capitalization of 18 trillion US Dollars. There are 3,554 listings on NASDAQ.

The market identifier code is XNAS. Toronto Stock Exchange in Toronto, Canada (North America) is the third largest stock exchange in North America based on market capitalization. The market identifier code of the Toronto stock exchange is TSX. The Toronto stock exchange was founded on 25th October 1861. The Toronto stock exchange has a market capitalization of $4.3 trillion (as of December 2021). 

B3 Brasil Bolsa Balcão is the stock exchange of Brazil situated in São Paulo, Brazil. Total number of listings is  475 as of October 2022. The market capitalization of B3 Brasil Bolsa Balcão is  R$5.2 trillion. The average volume of trade for 3 months is 50,073,073. The market identifier code is BVMP. The Buenos Aires Stock Exchange situated in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The market capitalization of Buenos Aires Stock Exchange is USD $140.0 Billion. The market identifier code of Buenos Aires Stock Exchange XBUE. MERVAL is the main index.

What are the 4 Major Stock Exchanges?

The New York Stock Exchange, NASDAQ, Shanghai Stock Exchange, and Euronext are the four major stock exchanges at the present time. The New York stock exchange is the largest stock exchange in the world by market capitalization.  It is also known as THE BIG BOARD. It is located in the financial district of lower Manhattan in New York City in the United States of America (North America).

The market identifier code of the new york stock exchange is NYSE. The NYSE trading floor is at the New York Stock Exchange Building on 11 Wall Street and 18 Broad Street. The market capitalization of the New York stock exchange is US$22.649 trillion as of January 2023 which is the biggest market capitalization of all time until now. The New York stock exchange has a listing of 2,400. The New York stock exchange is 2nd in the list of exchanges having the most number of companies listed in them. 

The Nasdaq has the most number of listings which is 3,554. The full form of Nasdaq is National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations. It is the 2nd largest stock exchange in the world with a market capitalization of 18.00 trillion US Dollars. It is the most active stock trading venue in the US by volume. The monthly trade volume of NASDAQ is about 51.9 billion US dollars.The NASDAQ is situated in New York City, U.S. Shanghai Stock Exchange is the 3rd biggest stock exchange in the world in terms of Market capitalization. 

The Shanghai Stock Exchange is also the largest stock exchange in the continent of Asia. The total number of listings is 2005. The market capitalization of the Shanghai stock exchange is US$7.26 trillion as of January 2023. The monthly trade volume of the month of March of 2023 is 251,492.210. The Shanghai Stock Exchange is located in Shanghai, China.

 Euronext is the 4th major stock exchange in the world because it has a Market capitalization of 6.62 trillion US Dollars. The total number of listings in Euronext is 2000 companies. The headquarters of Euronext is situated in Paris and the registered office is In the Netherlands.

What is the oldest Stock Exchange in the world?

Amsterdam Stock Exchange is the oldest Stock Exchange in the world. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange is called the Euronext Amsterdam. The Location of Euronext Amsterdam is in Amsterdam, Netherlands. It was established by the Dutch East India Company in 1602.

Simone Huis in ‘t Veld is the CEO of the Euronext Amsterdam. The number of listings of Euronext Amsterdam is 140. Accepted currency is the euro. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange merged with the Brussels Stock Exchange and the Paris Stock Exchange to form Euronext on 22 September 2000.

What is the largest Stock Exchange in the world?

The New York Stock Exchange is the largest stock exchange in the world, with a market capitalization of nearly 25.1 trillion U.S. dollars as of March 2023. The market identifier code of the new york stock exchange is NYSE.

The NYSE trading floor is at the New York Stock Exchange Building on 11 Wall Street and 18 Broad Street. It was founded on May 17th, 1792. International exchange is the owner of NYSE and its president is Lynn Martin. There are 2400 total listings on NYSE. 

What is the largest Stock Exchange in terms of Market Capitalization?

Market capitalization, or market cap is the total value of a company’s outstanding shares of stock. It was founded on May 17, 1792, and consists of 2,400 listed companies. The New York stock exchange has a Market capitalization of US$ 22.77 trillion. Berkshire Hathaway Inc, Coca-Cola, Walt Disney Company, and McDonald’s Corporation are seven of the major companies listed on the New York stock exchange.

What is the largest Stock Exchange in terms of Market Place?

The New York Stock Exchange is the largest stock exchange in terms of Market capitalization. The average trading volume on this exchange is between 2 to 6 billion shares so it has the power to affect other stock market indices because of high trading volumes across multiple countries and on an international level.

The New York stock exchange affects the conditions of the world economy itself. The New York Stock Exchange has a market capitalization of $26.2 trillion and has more than 2400 companies listed.

Which was the largest Stock Exchange in terms of Volume?

The New York stock exchange is the largest Stock in the world in terms of stock market volume. The average trading volume on this exchange is between 2 to 6 billion shares so it has the power to affect other stock market indices because of high trading volumes across multiple countries and on an international level. The New York stock exchange affects the conditions of the world economy itself.

What is the largest Stock Exchange in terms of companies listed?

NASDAQ is the largest stock exchange in the world in terms of the total no of companies listed. There are 3,554 companies listed on NASDAQ. It is the 2nd largest stock exchange in the world with a market capitalization of 18 trillion US Dollars.

It is one of the most active stock trading venues in the US by volume. It operates on 29 markets and five central securities depositories both in the USA and Europe. Most of the world’s technology giants like Microsoft, Amazon, Tesla, Apple, Google, and Meta platforms are listed on NASDAQ.

How many Stock Exchanges are there?

There are about 60 global stock exchanges that range in size and trading volume. Only 16 stock markets from the world have a market capitalization of over 1 trillion. The New York Stock Exchange, Nasdaq, Shanghai Stock Exchange, and Euronext are the top 4 stock exchanges in the world. BSE and NSE are the two most important one’s from India.

The Tokyo stock exchange and Japan exchange group are 2 significant one’s from the continent of Asia. Toronto Stock Exchange, Saudi Stock Exchange (Tadawul), SIX Swiss Exchange, Deutsche Börse AG, Australian Securities Exchange, Korea Exchange, Johannesburg Stock Exchange, Taiwan Stock Exchange, Tehran Stock Exchange, B3 Brasil Bolsa Balcão are ten other important stock exchanges.

How many Stock Exchanges throughout the world have a Market Value of more than US$1 trillion each?

There are 19 stock exchanges in the world that have over 1 trillion market capitalization. They are commonly referred to as “ the one trillion club”. The New York Stock Exchange is the biggest and largest stock exchange which has a market capitalization of 22.7 trillion USD. The next top 3 stock exchanges are the NASDAQ ( National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations ), the Shanghai Stock Exchange, and Euronext. NASDAQ is also situated in New York.

It has a market cap of 18 trillion USD. The SSE is situated in China and has a market cap of 7.26 trillion us dollars. All The 16 below-mentioned stock exchanges have a market capitalisation of above 1 trillion: Japan Exchange Group, Shenzhen Stock Exchange, Hong Kong Stock Exchange, Bombay Stock Exchange, London Stock Exchange, Saudi Stock Exchange (Tadawul), SIX Swiss Exchange, Deutsche Börse AG, Nasdaq Nordic and Baltic Exchanges, Australian Securities Exchange, Korea Exchange, Johannesburg Stock Exchange, Taiwan Stock Exchange, and Tehran Stock Exchange.

What is the difference between Stock Exchange and Stock Market?

A stock market is a collection of stock exchanges where the transactions for issuing, purchasing and selling of stock take place. A stock exchange is a place where stockbrokers and traders come together to buy and sell different stocks. A stock exchange is an infrastructure that facilitates trading. The stock market is an umbrella term given to all the stock exchanges happening in a particular area.

A stock exchange only has a narrow range as it is only a part of the stock market but the stock market has a wide range as it has many Stock exchanges as its components. The volume of trade is generally larger for a stock market when compared to stock exchanges.

The main purpose of a stock market is to act as a meeting place for trading purposes. The main purpose of the stock exchange is to maximize profits from the stock exchange. Both the stock market and stock exchange have a very important role to play in the trading of stock across the country.

What are the Stock Exchanges in India?

There are 7 main stock exchanges in India. They are BSE(Bombay Stock Exchange), NSE (National Stock Exchange), Calcutta Stock Exchange Ltd, Indian Commodity Exchange Limited, Metropolitan Stock Exchange of India Ltd, Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd, National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange Ltd. 

Stock Exchanges in India
Stock Exchanges in India

A stock exchange is an entity authorized by the government through which stocks are trading. You can trade stocks, bonds and ETPs using Stock exchanges. There are 23 Stock exchanges in India. The following exchanges have been granted exit by the Securities and Exchange Board of India.

The Hyderabad Securities and Enterprises Ltd (erstwhile Hyderabad Stock Exchange), Coimbatore Stock Exchange Ltd, Saurashtra Kutch Stock Exchange Ltd, Mangalore, Stock Exchange, Inter-Connected Stock Exchange of India Ltd, Cochin Stock Exchange Ltd, Bangalore Stock Exchange Ltd, Ludhiana Stock exchange Ltd, Gauhati Stock Exchange Ltd, Bhubaneswar Stock Exchange Ltd, Jaipur Stock Exchange Ltd, OTC Exchange of India, Pune Stock Exchange Ltd, Madras Stock Exchange Ltd, U.P.Stock Exchange Ltd, Madhya Pradesh Stock Exchange Ltd, Vadodara Stock Exchange Ltd, Delhi Stock Exchange Ltd, Ahmedabad Stock Exchange Ltd. 

How many Stock Exchanges are in India?

There are  23 stock exchanges in India. The 7 most important one’s are given below: 

  • BSE(Bombay Stock Exchange) 
  • NSE (National Stock Exchange) 
  • Calcutta Stock Exchange Ltd
  • Indian Commodity Exchange Limited 
  • Metropolitan Stock Exchange of India Ltd 
  • Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd
  • National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange Ltd. 

The national stock exchange and the Bombay stock exchange are the 2 most important Stock exchanges in India. The remaining 21 stocks are regional stock exchanges (RSEs).

Arjun
Arjun Remesh

Head of Content

Arjun is a seasoned stock market content expert with over 7 years of experience in stock market, technical & fundamental analysis. Since 2020, he has been a key contributor to Strike platform. Arjun is an active stock market investor with his in-depth stock market analysis knowledge. Arjun is also an certified stock market researcher from Indiacharts, mentored by Rohit Srivastava.

Shivam
Shivam Gaba

Reviewer of Content

Shivam is a stock market content expert with CFTe certification. He is been trading from last 8 years in indian stock market. He has a vast knowledge in technical analysis, financial market education, product management, risk assessment, derivatives trading & market Research. He won Zerodha 60-Day Challenge thrice in a row. He is being mentored by Rohit Srivastava, Indiacharts.

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