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Profitability Ratios: Definition, Formula, Types, Calculation, Importance          

Profitability Ratios: Definition, Formula, Types, Calculation, Importance

Profitability Ratios: Definition, Formula, Types, Calculation, Importance
By Arjun Arjun Remesh | Reviewed by Shivam Shivam Gaba | Updated on January 3, 2024

Profitability ratios are key financial metrics that provide valuable insights into a company’s ability to generate earnings. Profitability ratios examine different aspects of a company’s income generation, cost management, and use of assets and equity to produce returns. The most commonly analyzed profitability ratios include margins such as gross profit margin, operating margin and net profit margin, which reveal how efficiently Revenue is converted into profits at different stages. 

Return ratios like return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE) and return on invested capital (ROIC) evaluate income production relative to the balance sheet. Comparing these metrics over time as well as against industry peers provides important context on the financial performance and health of a business. Tracking movements in profitability ratios can help identify strengths and weaknesses, ascertain investment risks and returns, signal potential issues, inform valuations and forecasting models, and guide assessments of management decisions. A thorough understanding of profitability is thus essential for conducting a comprehensive fundamental analysis of a company.

What are profitability ratios?

Profitability ratios are financial metrics utilized by financial analysts and investors to evaluate a company’s competence to create earnings comparative to Revenue, balance sheet assets, operating expenditures, and shareholder equity. These ratios calculate how resourcefully a company leverages its resources and generates profit per dollar of sales, assets, or equity. Tracking profitability ratios over time demonstrates if a company’s financial performance is improving or declining. 

The three most commonly utilized profitability ratios are profit margin, return on assets (ROA), and return on equity (ROE). Profit margin signifies how much net income a company produces for each dollar of Revenue created. It’s computed by splitting net income by total Revenue. A higher profit margin denotes a company is more capable of transforming Revenue into actual profit.

ROA gauges how much net income a company produces per dollar of assets. It’s measured by dividing net income by average total assets. ROA exhibits how well a company utilizes assets to formulate profits. ROE calculates net income generated per dollar of shareholder equity. It’s computed by dividing net income by average shareholder equity. ROE unveils how much profit a company produces for shareholders.

What is the formula for the profitability ratio?

The most commonly used profitability ratio formula is

Gross margin = (Revenue – Cost of goods sold) / Revenue 

A higher gross margin indicates a company sell its inventory while retaining a greater proportion of Revenue as profit.

Operating margin – This ratio compares operating income to Revenue to quantify a company’s operating efficiency. The formula is:  

Operating margin = Operating income / Net revenue

A higher operating margin means a company is better at controlling operating costs and generating income from core business operations.

Net profit margin – This ratio shows the percentage of Revenue that translates into net income after all expenses. The formula is:

Net profit margin = Net income / Revenue 

A higher net profit margin means a company is more efficient at producing bottom-line profits from each dollar of sales.

Return on assets (ROA) – This ratio measures how much net income a company generates per dollar of assets. The formula is:

ROA = Net income / Average total assets

A higher ROA indicates greater efficiency in using assets to produce profits.

Return on equity (ROE) – This ratio reveals how much net income a company produces for each dollar of shareholder equity. The formula is: 

ROE = Net income / Average shareholders’ equity

A higher ROE means a company generates more income for shareholders from invested equity capital.

Return on invested capital (ROIC) – This ratio examines net income against capital directly invested into operating activities. The formula is:

ROIC = Net operating profit after tax / Invested capital

A higher ROIC signals a company is more effectively utilizing capital deployed into core operations.

What are the types of profitability ratios available?

There are several major types of profitability ratios that focus on different aspects of earnings performance. Examining trends among these key profitability ratios provides a multidimensional view of a company’s financial strength. This introductory overview describes the main categories of profitability ratios and how they uniquely quantify different facets of earnings ability.

What are the types of profitability ratios available
Profitability Ratios: Definition, Formula, Types, Calculation, Importance 4

1.Marginal Ratios

Marginal ratios analyze a company’s profitability at different stages of the income statement, from gross profit down to net earnings. By incrementally examining earnings at each level, marginal ratios provide insights into the operating leverage and expense management of a business. Common marginal profitability metrics include gross margin, EBIT margin, EBITDA margin, operating margin, net margin, cash flow margin, PAT margin, and operating expense margin. Tracking trends in these ratios highlights strengths and weaknesses across a company’s sales generation, expense control, production efficiency, and bottom-line profitability.

Gross profit margin

Gross profit margin measures a company’s ability to produce earnings from core business operations before accounting for overhead, operating costs, and taxes. It represents the percentage of Revenue remaining after subtracting only the costs directly associated with generating sales. Gross margin is calculated by dividing gross profit by net Revenue.

A higher gross margin means a company sell its products or services while retaining a greater proportion of Revenue as profit before additional expenses are factored in. It demonstrates efficiency in managing production costs and pricing products profitably. Tracking trends in gross margin highlights strengths or weaknesses in production efficiency, cost control, product mix, and pricing power. Comparing a company’s gross margin to competitors benchmarks operational execution. Rising margins indicate greater profitability from core business activities. Declining margins suggest challenges with production costs, pricing, or product mix.

Gross margin provides an incremental measure of profitability at the initial stage of the income statement. It assesses earning power before overhead, SG&A, depreciation, and other operating expenses impact the bottom line. It quantifies profit potential if management operates efficiently. Gross margin paints a complete picture of operational profitability when combined with other marginal ratios down the income statement.

EBIT margin

EBIT margin examines a company’s profitability from core operations by comparing earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) to total Revenue. Also called operating margin, it measures the percentage of Revenue retained as operating income after operating expenses are deducted. EBIT margin is calculated by dividing EBIT by net Revenue.

A higher EBIT margin indicates a company has better control over operating costs and generates greater operating income per dollar of sales. It reflects operational efficiency regardless of capital structure or tax rates. Rising EBIT margins signal improving profitability from business activities. Declining EBIT margins suggest challenges in managing operating expenses or generating earnings growth.

EBIT margin increments gross margin analysis by accounting for sales, general and administrative (SG&A) costs and R&D expenses. It assesses earnings power after operating overhead. Comparing EBIT margin to gross margin shows how well SG&A costs are controlled. EBIT margin demonstrates core operating leverage if Revenue grows faster than operating expenses. Tracking EBIT margin trends measures how operating costs and execution shape profitability over time.

EBITDA margin

EBITDA margin evaluates profitability by comparing earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) to total Revenue. It measures the percentage of Revenue retained as EBITDA, which represents earnings before capital structure costs and non-cash expenses are considered. EBITDA margin is calculated by dividing EBITDA by net Revenue.

A higher EBITDA margin signals greater earnings strength regardless of financing methods or accounting treatments for assets. It demonstrates operating efficiency when capital intensity and depreciation expenses could otherwise distort profitability. Improving EBITDA margins indicates better expense control, operating leverage and cash generation ability. Declining EBITDA margins suggest problems managing costs or weaker cash flows.

EBITDA margin adjusts EBIT margin to exclude depreciation and amortization, which are non-cash expenses. This measures underlying cash flow strength. Comparing EBITDA margin to EBIT margin shows the impact of depreciation and amortization on earnings. EBITDA margin provides an incremental measure of core earnings power before capital structure and tax rates affect the bottom line.

Operating profit margin

Operating profit margin compares operating income to net Revenue to quantify core operating efficiency. Also known as EBIT margin, it measures the percentage of Revenue retained as operating profit after operating expenses are deducted. Operating margin is calculated by dividing operating income by net Revenue.

A higher operating margin indicates a company is better at generating profit from day-to-day business activities. It reflects operational efficiency regardless of financing costs or tax rates. Improving operating margins signals better expense control and operating leverage. Declining operating margins suggest problems managing costs or weaker core profit growth.

Operating margin analyzes earnings power after operating expenses like SG&A and R&D. It demonstrates operating efficiency before interest, taxes, and one-time expenses impact net income. Tracking operating margin trends shows how cost execution affects profitability over time. Comparing operating margin to gross margin highlights the impact of SG&A spending on earnings. Overall, operating margin quantifies how well a company converts Revenue into profit from ongoing business activities.

Net profit margin

Net profit margin indicates the percentage of Revenue that translates into bottom-line net income after all expenses are considered. It measures a company’s overall profitability from total operations. Net margin is calculated by dividing net income by net Revenue.

A higher net margin means a company retains more profit after costs, interest, taxes and other expenses are deducted. Improving net margins signals greater efficiency in generating after-tax earnings as Revenue grows. Declining net margins suggest problems controlling expenses or weaker profit growth overall.

Net margin evaluates bottom-line profitability after subtracting all operating and non-operating expenses. It reflects earnings power after overhead, operating costs, depreciation, financing costs, and taxes. The net margin shows shareholders the net income produced per dollar of sales. Comparing net margin to operating margin demonstrates the impact of non-operating expenses. Rising net margins indicate improving profitability, tax efficiency and expense control across the business.

Cash Flow margin

Cash flow margin examines operating cash flow as a percentage of Revenue. It measures how much cash a company generate from ongoing business activities per dollar of sales. Cash flow margin is calculated by dividing cash flow from operations by net Revenue.

A higher cash flow margin indicates a company is more efficiently converting sales into cash flow. It demonstrates the underlying cash profitability of the business. Improving cash flow margins means greater cash generation ability as Revenue grows. Declining cash flow margins suggest weaker cash conversion and potential issues with working capital or expenses.

Cash flow margin analyzes cash generation power rather than accrual-based earnings. It shows how much money is actually flowing into the business from operating activities. Comparing cash flow margin to net margin demonstrates the conversion of net income into cash flow. Cash flow margin complements earnings ratios to highlight liquidity strengths or deficiencies.

PAT margin

PAT margin measures profit after tax (PAT) as a percentage of total Revenue. It shows the after-tax profit per rupee of sales realized by a company after all operating and non-operating expenses. PAT margin is calculated by dividing PAT by net Revenue.

A higher PAT margin indicates greater profitability and tax efficiency. Rising PAT margins mean a company is improving its after-tax earnings from business activities. Declining PAT margins suggest challenges with cost control or weaker after-tax profit growth.

PAT margin analyzes true bottom-line profitability after income taxes are paid. It demonstrates how much profit is left for shareholders after all expenses and taxes. PAT margin complements earnings before-tax ratios to show the impact of taxes on profitability. Comparing the PAT margin to the net margin highlights the effective tax rate. Overall, PAT margin quantifies after-tax earning power per dollar of sales.

Operating expense margin

Operating expense margin compares total operating expenses to net Revenue to quantify the cost efficiency of business operations. It measures what percentage of Revenue is consumed by operating costs. Operating expense margin is calculated by dividing total operating expenses by net Revenue.

A lower operating expense margin indicates a company is better at controlling costs and maintaining lean operations. Declining operating expense margins mean greater efficiency in leveraging revenue growth versus expense growth. Rising operating expense margins suggest challenges managing costs or bloated operations.

Operating expense margin identifies how much overhead, SG&A, R&D and other expenses eat into Revenue. Subtracting it from 100% shows the operating profit margin. Tracking operating expense margin trends highlights strengths or weaknesses in cost discipline over time. It demonstrates the cost structure efficiency necessary to drive strong earnings. Overall, operating expense margin measures how well a company manages operating costs per dollar of sales.

Examining a company’s profitability through marginal ratios provides an invaluable perspective on operational efficiency. By incrementally analyzing gross margin, EBIT margin, EBITDA margin, operating margin, net margin, cash flow margin, PAT margin, and operating expense margin, a comprehensive picture emerges of sales generation, production costs, operating leverage, overhead efficiency, tax management, and bottom-line profit trends. Tracking shifts among these interrelated profitability ratios over time highlights areas of improving returns and worsening performance. Marginal ratio analysis equips stakeholders with the financial insights necessary to evaluate strengths, weaknesses, and drivers of profitability.

2. Return Ratios

Return ratios measure a company’s profitability relative to the assets, equity, debt, or capital invested in its operations. By quantifying how much income is generated per unit of investment, return ratios assess the productivity and efficiency of resources used by a business. Key return ratios include return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE), return on invested capital (ROIC), return on net worth, return on debt, return on Revenue, and risk-adjusted return. Tracking trends in these ratios highlights strengths or weaknesses in asset utilization, investment allocation, funding choices, and risk management to drive returns.

Return on assets (ROA)

Return on assets (ROA) measures the net income a company generates per dollar of assets. It demonstrates how efficiently a company utilizes assets to produce profits. ROA is calculated by dividing net income by average total assets.

A higher ROA indicates greater efficiency in leveraging assets to generate earnings. Improving ROA means a company is getting more income from existing assets. Declining ROA suggests challenges with asset utilization, poor investment allocation or weaker profit growth.

ROA shows how well a company’s assets are being used to produce profits. It highlights strengths or weaknesses in asset turnover, cost controls and profit margins. ROA facilitates comparisons of operational efficiency across companies of different sizes. It provides a metric for evaluating management’s productivity in allocating capital. Tracking ROA over time illustrates the quality of investment decisions.

Return on equity (ROE)

Return on equity (ROE) measures the net income generated per dollar of shareholder equity. It quantifies how much profit a company produces from funds invested by shareholders. ROE is calculated by dividing net income by average shareholder equity.

A higher ROE indicates greater efficiency in utilizing equity financing to generate earnings growth. Improving ROE means a company is getting more profit from shareholder capital. Declining ROE suggests challenges with capital allocation, expense control or weaker profitability.

ROE shows how well a company reinvests earnings and leverages equity financing to drive returns. It helps assess capital structure choices and gauge investment quality. ROE facilitates comparing shareholder returns across companies. Tracking ROE illustrates management’s effectiveness at allocating capital from shareholders.

Return on invested capital (ROIC)

Return on invested capital (ROIC) measures the net operating profit a company generates per dollar of capital invested into its operations. It demonstrates the operating efficiency of invested funds. ROIC is calculated by dividing net operating profit after tax by average invested capital.

A higher ROIC indicates a company is more effective at utilizing invested capital to generate operating profits. Improving ROIC means greater returns are being produced by capital deployed into operations. Declining ROIC suggests challenges with capital allocation, execution or weaker profit growth.

ROIC focuses on operating profits versus the cost of capital. It provides a metric for comparing returns on operating investments across companies or business units. ROIC helps assess whether additional investments will be productive. Tracking ROIC shows how well management allocates capital into value-creating investments.

Return on net worth.

Return on net worth measures the profitability of a company relative to its net worth or shareholders’ equity. It demonstrates how efficiently equity capital is employed to produce earnings growth. Return on net worth is calculated by dividing net income by average net worth or shareholders’ equity.

A higher return on net worth indicates greater efficiency in utilizing equity financing and retained earnings to generate profits. Improving return on net worth means a company is earning more income from existing shareholder capital. Declining return signals challenges in reinvesting equity into productive assets.

Return on net worth helps evaluate capital allocation decisions and operating efficiency improvements that enhance shareholder returns. It facilitates comparing companies’ use of equity financing and provides a metric for investor assessments of return potential versus risk. Tracking return on net worth illustrates a company’s evolving profitability from shareholders’ perspective.

Return on debt

Return on debt measures the earnings produced per dollar of debt financing used by a company. It demonstrates how effectively debt capital is utilized to generate operating profits and asset returns. Return on debt is calculated by dividing net operating income by average total debt.

A higher return on debt indicates greater efficiency in leveraging debt financing to produce operating earnings. Improving return on debt means a company is generating more income from existing debt capital. Declining return signals reliance on excessive leverage or poor allocation of debt proceeds.

Return on debt helps assess capital structure choices and balance sheet leverage strategies. Comparing the return on debt to the cost of debt shows whether financing is productive. Sustained returns above the cost of debt demonstrate effective leverage. Tracking return on debt illustrates the earnings contribution of debt financing over time.

Return on Revenue

Return on Revenue measures the net income or profit generated per dollar of total Revenue. It indicates how efficiently Revenue is converted into bottom-line profitability. Return on Revenue is calculated by dividing net income by total Revenue.

A higher return on Revenue indicates greater profitability relative to sales. Improving return on Revenue means incrementally more profit is being produced from each dollar of Revenue. Declining return suggests challenges with expense management, overhead costs or profit growth.

Return on Revenue helps assess pricing strategies, expense control and operational efficiency improvements that enhance profit margins. Comparing return on Revenue across business units or competitors highlights strengths or weaknesses in cost management and profit generation. Tracking return on Revenue illustrates a company’s evolving profitability over time.

Risk-adjusted return

Risk-adjusted return measures investment returns adjusted for the level of risk involved. It quantifies returns in relation to risk taken to help evaluate investment quality. Common risk adjustments include calculating Sharpe or Sortino ratios. The higher the ratio, the greater the return per unit of risk.

Risk-adjusted return provides a metric for comparing investment opportunities with differing risks. It enables investors to analyze returns in the context of potential losses. The goal is to maximize returns while minimizing the risk taken. By isolating risk-adjusted returns, investors construct better portfolios aligned to risk tolerance.

By examining return on assets, equity, invested capital, net worth, debt, and Revenue, companies evaluate earnings productivity from multiple perspectives. Analyzing risk-adjusted returns further incorporates risk considerations into performance assessments. Tracking trends in these complementary return ratios provides a comprehensive view of how effectively management allocates capital, utilizes financing, and executes operations to optimize returns. As key barometers of financial performance and capital efficiency, return ratios enable stakeholders to identify strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities to enhance profitability relative to investment.

How do you calculate profitability ratios?

Calculating profitability ratios involves dividing various profit measures by investment, asset, or equity bases. Let’s walk through an example using the income statement of the Indian IT company Infosys. In FY2022, Infosys reported

– Revenue from operations: â‚ą1,21,641 crore 

– Total operating expenses: ₹83,780 crore

– Operating profit: â‚ą37,861 crore 

– Total tax expense: ₹10,027 crore

– Net profit: ₹22,110 crore

– Average total assets: ₹1,38,090 crore

– Average shareholder equity: ₹71,701 crore

We use these actual financial results to calculate key profitability ratios for Infosys.:

Gross margin = (Revenue – Cost of goods sold) / Revenue

Infosys doesn’t report the cost of goods sold separately, so we’ll use the operating margin instead.

Operating margin = Operating profit / Revenue  

= â‚ą37,861 crore / â‚ą1,21,641 crore

= 31.1%

This shows that 31.1% of Infosys’ total Revenue is retained as operating profit after operating expenses are deducted.

Net margin = Net profit / Revenue

= â‚ą22,110 crore / â‚ą1,21,641 crore 

= 18.2%

The net margin indicates that 18.2% of Revenue becomes net profit after all expenses and taxes.

Return on Assets (ROA) = Net profit / Average total assets   

= â‚ą22,110 crore / â‚ą1,38,090 crore

= 16.0%

ROA shows Infosys generates â‚ą0.16 in profit from each rupee of assets, indicating good asset utilization.

Return on Equity (ROE) = Net profit / Average shareholder equity

= â‚ą22,110 crore / â‚ą71,701 crore

= 30.8% 

The ROE of 30.8% means Infosys creates â‚ą0.31 in profit per rupee of shareholder equity, demonstrating strong equity returns.

Why is the profitability ratio important?

Profitability ratios provide crucial insights into a company’s financial performance and health. These metrics quantify a business’s ability to generate earnings, control costs, and effectively utilize assets and equity. Tracking profitability ratios over time and benchmarking against competitors reveals the operational efficiency, expense management, and investment returns necessary to succeed in an industry. 

Profitability ratios help assess the outcomes of management decisions around pricing, cost control, capital allocation and more. Improving ratios indicate sound strategy execution and operations. Declining ratios signal poor decisions or challenges with execution. Profitability metrics evaluate the quality of leadership in core areas like production efficiency, inventory management, and expense discipline.

Analyzing profitability trends highlights areas where a company is performing well or poorly. Gross and net margins quantify revenue conversion and pricing power. Return on assets shows asset use efficiency. Return on equity measures how well capital is allocated to grow profits. Evaluating changes in these ratios over time reveals strengths and weaknesses in a business. This enables stakeholders to identify opportunities for improvement.

Profitability ratios allow comparison against competitors and industry averages to gauge operational efficiency. Metrics like return on assets and net margins are benchmarked across companies of different sizes. This reveals where a company ranks versus rivals and helps set performance targets. Leaders also use ratios to compare business units engaged in similar activities within the same company.

How do you find a company’s profitability ratios?

Obtain the latest annual or quarterly income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows. For public companies, these are found on the investor relations section of their website or on financial websites like Strike. Identify key income statement items, including Revenue, operating expenses, operating income, EBITDA, interest expense, tax expense and net income. These provide the profit measures used in ratio calculations.

Note key balance sheet items, including total assets, current assets, total liabilities and shareholder equity. The averages of assets and equity appear in ratio denominators. Locate key cash flow statement figures such as cash from operations, capex spending and free cash flow. The cash flow statement contributes additional data points for analysis. Calculate profitability ratios using the data points above. Key ratios include gross margin, operating margin, ROA, ROE and cash flow return on investment. Plug the income statement, balance sheet and cash flow figures into the formulas for each. Compare the latest ratios to past periods, industry averages and closest competitors.

This provides context for evaluating the company’s performance. Look for improving or declining trends over time. Research factors that are driving changes in profitability based on management commentary, economic conditions, and company/industry news. Connect ratio analysis to operational drivers. Draw conclusions about the company’s financial health from its profitability ratios. Deteriorating margins and returns could signal future concerns. Improving metrics suggests stronger performance ahead.

What are the limitations of profitability ratios?

Profitability ratios provide helpful insights, but they have some limitations to consider when conducting analysis.

  • Context Dependence: Ratios must be analyzed in the context of company/industry conditions, economic cycles and competitor benchmarks to be meaningful. Isolated ratios lack comparative interpretation.
  • Accounting Distortions: Choices in accounting policies like inventory valuation and depreciation methods distort ratio calculations across companies if not adjusted to a consistent basis.
  • Limited Forecasting Ability: Past-period profitability ratios have limited ability to predict future performance on their own. They must be paired with other forecasting methods.
  • Lack of Timeliness: Since ratios rely on historical financial statements, they do not reflect a company’s most current operating situation and future outlook. Real-time insights are limited.
  • Oversimplification: Reducing profitability to single ratio metrics overlooks some complexities. Qualitative management factors are not captured in the numbers. 
  • Encourages Short-Termism: Pressures to maintain superficially strong profitability ratios from quarter to quarter incent short-term decisions over long-term investments.
  • Data Manipulation Risk: Ratios are potentially “managed” via accounting or operating choices intended to boost the metrics rather than overall profitability.
  • Difficult Industry Comparisons: Inter-industry comparisons of profitability are challenging, given vastly different capital requirements, margins, debt levels and business models.
  • Not Forward-Looking: Trailing profitability ratios incorporate past results only and will not be able to assess expected future returns from growth initiatives and investments.
  • Susceptible to Outliers: One-time income statement items skew profitability metrics for a single period and complicate trend analysis.

While these limitations exist, profitability ratios remain indispensable metrics if used properly. Analysts must apply diligence in selecting peer groups and benchmark periods to minimize distortions. 

Is profitability ratio required for financial ratio analysis?

Yes, examining profitability ratios is a vital component of financial ratio analysis. While various ratios are calculated to evaluate liquidity, solvency, efficiency and valuation, profitability ratios provide unique insights into the company’s core operating performance. Assessing ratios like gross margin, return on assets, and return on equity allows analysts to quantify earnings power, expense management, and investment returns directly.

How does the profitability ratio help in fundamental analysis?

Profitability ratios are invaluable metrics for fundamental analysis because they provide direct insights into the earnings power of a company. Ratios like operating margin and return on equity help assess the inherent profit generation ability of a business across different activities and investments. Trends in profitability ratios signal improving or deteriorating financial performance.

Declining margins or returns on capital indicate problems before they surface elsewhere. Strong fundamental analysis requires understanding the drivers of growth and profitability. Ratios help pinpoint where a company is most efficient or inefficient at converting inputs like assets and equity into earnings. Benchmarking versus competitors highlights competitive strengths and weaknesses.

Since the objective of enterprises is to maximize profits, the capacity to generate sustainable returns on investment must be thoroughly analyzed. Profitability ratios provide the quantitative metrics to evaluate earnings performance from multiple perspectives. They help establish expectations and models for projected growth and returns.

Arjun Remesh

Head of Content

Arjun is a seasoned stock market content expert with over 7 years of experience in stock market, technical & fundamental analysis. Since 2020, he has been a key contributor to Strike platform. Arjun is an active stock market investor with his in-depth stock market analysis knowledge. Arjun is also an certified stock market researcher from Indiacharts, mentored by Rohit Srivastava.

Shivam Gaba

Reviewer of Content

Shivam is a stock market content expert with CFTe certification. He is been trading from last 8 years in indian stock market. He has a vast knowledge in technical analysis, financial market education, product management, risk assessment, derivatives trading & market Research. He won Zerodha 60-Day Challenge thrice in a row. He is being mentored by Rohit Srivastava, Indiacharts.

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